Typography is the use of the proper typeface at the proper time. Understanding the different parts of a typeface character can help you better understand the way that it will flow when placed together into written word. Whether the project is going to be printed or on screen, for business or advertising, the message must be clear.
Ascender Line: Stroke of a lowercase character that extends above the x-height.
X-Height: The height of a lowercase X. This will vary among typefaces. The x-height is one of determining factors of readability in paragraphs.
Baseline: Line onto which all characters align.
Descender Line: Stroke of a lowercase character the dips below the baseline.
Serif: Corners, or "feet," that exist on the end of the strokes. Serif typefaces are great for written paragraphs, and the "feet" improve reader comprehension.
Bracket: The connector between the serif and the stem/stroke. These tend to vary in degrees based on the contrast and angle of the strokes.
Terminal: Stroke end that does not have a serif.
Loop: Loops are found at the bottom of some lowercase characters.
Stem: A vertical or diagonal stroke.