In 1970, Dr. E.F. Codd published "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks," an article that outlined a model for storing and manipulating data using tables. Shortly after Codd's article was published, IBM began working on creating a relational database. Between 1979 and 1982, Oracle (then Relational Software, Inc.), Relational Technology, Inc. (later acquired by Computer Associates), and IBM all put out commercial relational databases, and by 1986 they all were using SQL as the data query language.
In 1986, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standardized SQL. This standard was updated in 1989, in 1992 (called SQL2), in 1999 (called SQL3), in 2003 (called SQL 2003), in 2006 (called SQL 2006) and in 2008 (called SQL 2008). Standard SQL is sometimes called ANSI SQL. All major relational databases support this standard but each has its own proprietary extensions. Unless otherwise noted, the SQL taught in this course is the standard ANSI SQL.