When organizing instruction, it is helpful for the ID to be familiar with instructional strategies so that learning can be effectively facilitated.
The next section will focus on instructional delivery formats and go into more detail on the various ways that instruction is typically delivered. It is important to take into consideration the learner's environment when organizing content:
Instructional strategies are how the learners will experience the training. Lecture and demonstration activities are two that most people are familiar with; however, they do not always work best in an instructional design setting.
There are a number of different activities that can be incorporated into the learning by the ID, depending on the learning environment and the instructional goals and objectives that have been developed.
It can help to determine what is being taught, to determine which strategy to use.
The following are the common instructional elements and some strategies to teach them:
Facts are basic elements that need to be learned and remembered. According to Bloom's, they are usually in the knowledge area of the cognitive domain.
The following are some examples of facts:
The best way to teach a fact is often through repetition, as well as identifying similarities and differences. This can be done through examples and nonexamples.
Facts should be repeated and chunked appropriately, that is, so that it is logically grouped.
Concepts are slightly more complex than facts, usually in the comprehension level of Bloom's taxonomy.
A concept is an idea or a notion.
The following are examples of concepts:
Teaching concepts can be accomplished through discrimination, having the student determine the concept versus a nonexample, as well as through classification. In classification, the learner notes how things differ and what is similar.
Rules are the relationships between concepts. Rules can be "if, then" or cause and effect, for example.
Examples of rules include:
Rules can be taught with a summary/review process, where the rules are presented, for example, in a list, and then the list is again presented in review as a graphic.
Procedures are made up of steps, and are usually in the application level of Bloom's taxonomy. Procedures are more complex instructional elements. An example of a procedure would be:
Procedures are often taught through practice, introducing the procedure, and then having the learner demonstrate the practice.