Welcome to our free HTML Training tutorial. This tutorial is based on Webucator's Introduction to HTML Training course.
Web development involves a combination of client-side programming and server-side programming.
HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the language behind most web pages. The language is made up of elements that describe the structure and format of the content on a web page.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used in HTML pages to separate formatting and layout from content. Rules defining color, size, positioning, and other display aspects of elements are defined in the HTML page or in linked CSS pages.
The main purpose of Ajax is to provide a simple and standard means for a web page to communicate with the server without a complete page refresh.
Server-side programming involves writing code that connects web pages with databases, XML pages, email servers, file systems, and other systems and software accessible from the web server. The most common server-side languages and programming frameworks are Java Enterprise Edition, ASP.NET, Python, PHP, ColdFusion, and Node.js.
Java EE is used in large web projects. With its power and robustness comes a steep learning curve. Java EE is defined by its specification and API. A Java Application Server (Java AS) manages servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Web Services, and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB). Java EE also includes a number of other APIs commonly linked to enterprise application development. JDBC, JPA, e-mail, JMS, and XML are some examples. But that's only part of the picture. There are a number of frameworks built on some of these technologies that streamlines the development process further. Hibernate offers most of the object/relational mapping (ORM) without an EJB Container. For this reason it's called a lightweight ORM technology. JavaServer Faces, Struts, and Spring-MVC build on JSP to do away with scriptlets completely, relying on HTML style tags and associated JavaBeans.
Microsoft's ASP.NET is not a language, but a framework for writing websites and software. Like ColdFusion and JSP (and unlike traditional ASP) ASP.NET pages are precompiled, so they run faster than traditional ASP pages do. ASP.NET pages can be written in many languages, but the most popular are C# (pronounced C-sharp) and Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET).
Python has been a popular open source programming language for a long time. There are many web frameworks based on Python, the most popular of which is Django.
Like Python, PHP is open source. It is the language behind WordPress and has long been a popular alternative to proprietary languages such as ColdFusion and ASP.NET. PHP is lightweight and relatively simple to learn.
ColdFusion, created by Allaire (now owned by Adobe), is arguably the simplest of all server-side languages. It is tag-based, which makes it look a lot like HTML and easier for client-side programmers to understand than some of the other choices. Because of the relative ease with which it is written, ColdFusion is sometimes assumed not to be so powerful. In fact, ColdFusion code is compiled to Java bytecode, which means the pages run quickly.