Server-side programming involves writing code that connects web pages with databases, XML pages, email servers,
file systems, and other systems and software accessible from the web server. The most common server-side languages and
programming frameworks are
, , , , , and .
Java EE is used in large web projects. With its power and robustness comes a steep learning curve. Java EE is defined by its
specification and API.
A Java Application Server (Java AS) manages servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Web Services, and Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB). Java EE also includes a number of
other APIs commonly linked to enterprise application development. JDBC, JPA, e-mail, JMS, and XML are some examples.
But that's only part of the picture. There are a number of frameworks built on some of these technologies that streamlines the development process further.
Hibernate offers most of the object/relational mapping (ORM) without an EJB Container. For this reason it's called a lightweight ORM technology.
JavaServer Faces, Struts, and Spring-MVC build on JSP to do away with scriptlets completely, relying on HTML style tags and associated JavaBeans.
Microsoft's ASP.NET is not a language, but a framework for writing websites and software.
Like ColdFusion and JSP (and unlike traditional ASP) ASP.NET pages are precompiled, so they run
faster than traditional ASP pages do. ASP.NET pages can be written in many languages, but the most popular are C# (pronounced C-sharp) and
Visual Basic .NET (VB.NET).
Python has been a popular open source programming language for a long time. There are many web frameworks based on Python, the most popular of which is .
Like Python, PHP is open source. It is the language behind WordPress and has long been a popular alternative to proprietary languages such as ColdFusion and ASP.NET.
PHP is lightweight and relatively simple to learn.
ColdFusion, created by Allaire (now owned by Adobe), is arguably the simplest of all server-side languages.
It is tag-based, which makes it look a lot like HTML and easier for client-side programmers to understand than some of the other choices.
Because of the relative ease with which it is written, ColdFusion is sometimes assumed not to be so powerful. In fact, ColdFusion code is
compiled to Java bytecode, which means the pages run quickly.